Historically, there have been four types of resumes—reverse chronological, functional, qualifications/chronological, and hybrid, a combination of the qualifications, functional, and chronological resumes. Chronological and functional resumes have both advantages and disadvantages, while the qualifications/chronological and hybrid resumes offer the advantages of the chronological and functional resumes with none of the disadvantages. The clustered resume®, as we will see in the next chapter, adds a valuable and flexible tool for marketing yourself more effectively.

reVerSe ChronologiCal reSume

The standard reverse chronological resumes describe the candidate’s work experience in reverse order, with the current or most recent position appearing first. Traditionally these present employers, dates, job titles, duties, and results. The primary advantage of the chronological resume is that employers are used to reading it. They know how to scan it quickly and get what they need from it. Its major disadvantage is that it is often difficult to present valuable experience that was achieved earlier in the career without adding excessive verbiage, pages, and tedium.

FunCtional reSume

The functional resume, on the other hand, is expressly designed to showcase specific experience or functional areas of experience. The job seeker identifies key areas of experience, or “functions,” and labels each entry with headings such as Management, Design, Project Management, and Technical Skills. The sections are then filled in with the candidate’s most impressive experience and results. Major drawbacks of the functional resume are that it is more difficult to read, and that the employer typically does not know when or where the experience being described took place. For this reason it can be confusing. It is hard to find a hiring manager who prefers to read this type of resume above the other formats.

QualiFiCationS/ChronologiCal reSume

The qualifications/chronological resume is essentially a chronological resume with an extended qualifications section at the beginning. It utilizes the most effective attributes of both the reverse chronological and functional formats. The qualifications section of this resume is usually shorter than the functional portion of a functional resume, but it covers the most crucial areas of experience and provides a quick introduction to the candidate’s core strengths. The job narrative section, the other main part of the resume, provides the context for the experience, a critical element normally lacking in the traditional functional resume. Most of the resumes you’ll see in Resume Empower! are of this type.

hYbriD reSume

The hybrid resume typically includes functional and chronological sections, and often a qualifications section as well.

On the next six pages you will see examples of each of these resume formats followed by a more in-depth description of the functional resume, how to write it, how to determine whether you should use it, and additional samples.

Reverse Chronological Verdana

Juan Lozano

19301 Whispering Road Phoenix Arizona 85044 (602) 555-2809 jlozano@hotmail.com

OBJECTIVE: Restaurant Management


AA – Liberal Arts, Frost Community College (1999)


Restaurant Management Training School, 300 class hours, Gaucho Restaurants (2004–2006)


Gaucho Restaurants, Phoenix, AZ 2003–Present

General ManaGer – 2006–Present. Took over a troubled restaurant in the chain that was experiencing high employee turnover, poor service, and a loss in the customer base. Within nine months stabilized the operation. Resolved serious morale problems, instituted an effective training program, and developed

a strong support staff for consistent service. During the first nine months

increased sales 18% and reduced staff turnover 50% and labor costs 10%.

Provided excellent wine training for the staff and significantly increased wine


In 2007 increased sales 15% and profits 21%. In 2008 increased sales 14% and profits 18%. Named 2007 Regional Manager of the Year in a region of 21 fine dining restaurants.

assistant ManaGer – 2003–2006. As assistant manager oversaw one of the highest volume restaurants in the chain and was responsible for reducing

turnover and regaining customer confidence through training and development of floor staff. With stronger training and better marketing, increased sales

11%, achieved tighter budgets, and produced a level of service that brought strong compliments from customers.

La Casa Restaurant, Phoenix, AZ 1999–2003

associate ManaGer – 2001–2003. For this well-established restaurant, responsible for maintaining high standards related to service, food quality, personnel training, cost control, and sales. Introduced a method of analyzing

previous sales figures that better predicted staffing needs, cut labor costs, and

increased food and beverage sales.

ManaGeMent trainee – 1999–2001. Learned all aspects of the restaurant industry with assignments in purchasing, food preparation, wait staff, and hosting.

Functional Century Schoolbook


18852 52nd SE Bothell, Washington 98011

(206) 555-2756 suzannehall@msn.com

OBJECTIVE: Personnel Management


Personnel Management – Six years experience in personnel, with three years as Personnel Manager of a store with 230 employees. Supervise and train a staff of

four. Significantly increased morale among store personnel and successfully fought

off a unionizing effort.

Recruiting, Interviewing, Hiring – Very effective interviewer. Screen and hire all sales, supervisory, clerical, and support personnel. Over 80% of all people hired have remained with the store at least one year. Turnover has been reduced 22% by careful screening and by implementing other improvements throughout the store.

EEO - Perform periodic surveys and ensure all goals are met as required.

Wage and Salary Administration – Identified unfair wage differentials between

recent hires and those with longer service. Removed pay scale discrepancies and nearly eliminated turnover among more experienced staff.

Promotions – Work closely with supervisors to determine those ready for

promotions. Write all final recommendations for promotions. Terminations – Arbitrate in all firing situations and participate in all firing

interviews. Conduct exit interviews and identify causes for termination. By taking quick action, several terminations have been averted.

Manpower Planning – Predict staffing needs for Christmas and major sales and

hire necessary personnel. Career Counseling – Provide extensive career path counseling to store employees. Training and Development – Developed and conducted a 16-hour training

program emphasizing customer service and job training. Turnover and customer

complaints have been reduced substantially since the program was increased from 8 to 16 hours. Supervise additional training during the probationary period.


Briggins Department Stores, Seattle, Washington (1993 to Present) Personnel Manager (2003–Present) Assistant Personnel Manager (2001–2003) Schedule Coordinator (1998–2001) Credit Manager (1995–1998)

Credit Adjustment Processor (1993–1995)


Business Studies – Bellevue Community College (35 credits)

Résumé Formats

Functional Arial


14568 NE 9th Street Redmond, Washington 98053 (425) 555-7594 jvrye@comcast.net

OBJECTIVE: Facilities Management


Over 20 years of exceptional management experience. Proven ability to successfully complete projects cost effectively and on schedule. Received numerous awards for completion of high-quality projects.

Implemented comprehensive programs that dramatically improved productivity and

efficiency of personnel.


EnginEEring ManagEMEnt – Eight years of demanding and successful hands-on engineering management and plant management responsibilities. Coordinated hundreds of repair jobs conducted by both own workforce and outside contractors. In one instance increased overall plant reliability by 220%. While providing repair support for 12 naval ships over a three-year period, reduced equipment downtime by 50%.

FacilitiEs ManagEMEnt – As Chief Engineer and Material Manager, directly responsible for operation, maintenance, and repair of steam and diesel electric power plants. Associated equipment included heating, ventilation, and air

conditioning systems; firefighting and sprinkler systems; and various emergency equipment. Charged also with infrastructure repair and modifications. Supported numerous office and work station relocations in minimal time and without loss of


contract adMinistration – Broad experience in working with prime and subcontractors in overseeing scheduled and emergency repairs. Represented the

U.S. Government in the management of an $18 million resupply contract for 76

remote sites in the Pacific.

troublEshooting – Volunteered to rebuild a faltering yet critical department of

95 personnel. Within 45 days identified all major problem areas and initiated

a corrective action plan that included a comprehensive training program for 900 people. The revitalized training program improved morale and decreased absenteeism over 60%. Received a special commendation for the project.


United States Navy 1985 to 2008. Completed Naval service with rank of Commander.


MA – Political Science, Naval Postgraduate School (1990)

BA – International Studies, University of Washington (1984)

Qualifications/Chronological Georgia


1121 Peach Drive Atlanta, Georgia 30601 (404) 574-8769 ra_jennings@aol.com

OBJECTIVE: Airline Management


Excellent management and supervisory capabilities. Highly respected by subordinates and able to obtain high performance levels from employees. Established one of the best on-time performance records in the airline industry.


B.A. - Business, University of Southern California (1996)


Air Florida 2002 to Present Customer/Ramp Service Supervisor, Atlanta, Georgia, 2005 to present. Opened the Atlanta airport facility for Air Florida and have created one of

its most efficient and effective operations. Supervise and train 30 Customer

Service Agents and Ramp personnel. Responsible for all day-to-day operations decisions and handle all crises related to weather, passenger deaths and illnesses, bomb threats, and hijackings.

Established one of the top records in the industry by successfully loading planes and preparing them for departure in twenty minutes or less, 97% of the time. Effective planning and scheduling permit up to four planes to be serviced simultaneously. Lost time due to illness has been reduced by 68% and industrial accidents by 71%.

Customer Service Agent, Miami, Florida, 2002 to 2005. Functioned as Ticket Sales Agent, Boarding Agent, and Customer Service Representative. Provided the type of service and concern for customers that made Air Florida one of the fastest growing airlines in the U.S. Became adept at solving problems and satisfying customers’ complaints. Consistently maintained monthly sales in the top 10%.

Alaska Airlines, San Francisco, California 1997 to 2002 Customer Service Agent - Worked closely with customers to provide the

best connecting flights and make each flight an enjoyable experience.

Hybrid Tahoma


2917 S. E. 112th Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15203 (412) 555-0002 prshup@pennet.com


Technical Expertise – Hands-on person. Capable of operating and troubleshooting almost any piece of equipment. Understand the problems faced by machine operators and utilize engineering knowledge to effectively solve those problems.

Proposals, Contracts, and Negotiations – Have written and developed dozens of proposals and negotiated over 40 major contracts. Heavily experienced in all types of contracts, including DCAS, ASPR, and DAR. Consistently negotiate the most favorable terms for Cost Plus, Cost Sharing, Cost Plus Incentive Fixed, and R&D Contracts.

Cost Management, Cost Analysis, Cost Control – Over 15 years of cost management experience with all types of products and components, including processing equip

ment, fiberglass, and sheet metal parts. Establish program financial controls that pinpoint

manufacturing problems and prevent cost overruns. Expert in Value Engineering.

Cost Estimating – Experience covers all facets of manufacturing, including machined

parts, sheet metal, plastics, fiberglass, and software. Highly experienced in all methods of

estimating including parametric estimating. Vendor Selection – Inspect and analyze vendor facilities, equipment, capabilities, and quality. Recommendations to use a vendor have always been adopted.


B.A. Industrial Management, University of Pennsylvania (1991)

B.S. Industrial Engineering, University of Pittsburgh (1989)


Davenport Engineering & Consulting, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 2005 to Present Industrial Engineering Consultant – Work on assignments ranging in length from 3 to 12 months in the areas of Bidding, Estimating, Selecting Vendors, Cost Management, and

Manufacturing Planning. Enabled one manufacturer to obtain their first-ever contract with

U.S. Steel and to expand production from $40,000 to $140,000 per month with no in

crease in personnel. Researched and adapted a new technology which allowed the firm to

consistently underbid all competitors. Pennsylvania Division of Purchasing, Scranton, Pennsylvania 2001 to 2005

Specification Analyst – Developed quality standards, specifications, and test procedures

for many raw, semi-processed, and processed materials. The capabilities and sophistication of the Division were substantially increased through these efforts.

U.S. Steel, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 1991 to 2001

Cost Analyst – Estimated and analyzed costs of machined parts, hydraulic components, and mechanical systems supplied by vendors. Negotiated prices and engineering changes.

Hybrid Cambria

DAVID L. GOLDMAN2430 Stoneway NorthLittle Rock, Arkansas 72202(501) 254‑3242dlg202@razorback.com

OBJECTIVE: Project Management


Supervising. Took over a district with high turnover and low morale and created one of the top teams in the company. Work closely with individuals to enable both company and

personal needs to be satisfied.

Negotiating. Negotiate contracts that are fair, workmanufacturer. Work hard to get the best for both. able, and satisfactory to customer and

Coordinating/Planning. Installations have always been completed on schedule. Maintain

close contact with customers, manufacturing, and field engineering to deal with all

problems as they arise. Able to get commitments and support from those not directly responsible to me.

Computers. Excellent training and broad work experience installing and maintaining computer systems.


Data Systems, 1994 to PresentSenior Project Manager, Little Rock, Arkansas, 2003 to Present. Negotiate contracts,schedule deliveries, and troubleshoot all phases of computer installations. Work closelywith customers to determine their needs, then gain contractual commitments from manufacturing and field engineering to install systems by specific dates. Monitor factory schedules and software support schedules to ensure delivery schedules are met. Despitemany difficulties, all deliveries and installations have been completed on schedule. District Manager, Field Engineering, Los Angeles, California, 1999 to 2003. Supervisedand scheduled the work of 18 field engineers installing and maintaining computer systems.Took over a district with high turnover, low morale, and a poor reputation for customer service. Within one year turnover was reduced from 35% to 8% annually. Response time to down systems was reduced from six hours to two hours. Functioned as Project Manager for the installation of a branch online system for Security Western Bank (180 branches). Allinstallations were completed on time. Field Engineer, Washington, D. C., 1994 to 1999. Installed and maintained systems for banks, hotels and airlines. Customers were kept very satisfied because of extremely low


U.S. Air Force, 1988 to 1992

Computer Tech – Maintained and serviced on‑board aircraft computer systems.

Supervised a five-member team.



Field Engineering, Data Systems Manufacturing School – 6 months, 1994Computer Repair, Computer Learning Institute – 6 months, 1993Electrical Engineering, Old Dominion University – 1 year, 1992–1993Computer Tech School, U.S. Air Force – 9 months, 1988

the FunCtional reSume

Despite its previously described reputation, the functional resume offers some job seekers a viable format to get their stories across to employers. If your core strengths can readily be planted into definable categories, consider using a functional resume.

As you will notice in Suzanne’s resume (page 120), employment was included but job descriptions were not. This is common in functional resumes, and helps employers feel more comfortable with this format. The functional section in Suzanne’s resume is devoted entirely to her duties as personnel manager and assistant personnel manager. Those were the only jobs that were relevant to the position she was seeking. In a chronological resume it would have been difficult to have devoted so much space (24 lines) to just two positions. For Suzanne the functional resume was a great choice.

Jason Ryerson’s resume (page 121) enabled an ex-military officer to sell his experience in basically nonmilitary terms. He began with a traditional chronological resume that overemphasized military terminology. Only with a functional resume was he able to avoid the military jargon and instead use civilian-oriented terminology. Once that was accomplished he quickly found a position with an aircraft manufacturer.

If you are considering a functional or hybrid resume, review the section below, which offers functional categories that should be useful.

Read the sample functional resumes to get a feel for how they are constructed and what makes them effective. Although the backgrounds of the people will differ from yours, you should be able to determine whether your experience is better suited to the functional format or the qualifications/chronological format illustrated and discussed throughout the book.

the hYbriD reSume

A hybrid resume worked well for Paul Shupbach (page 123) and David Goldman (page 124). The format enabled them to go into much more detail about their work experience than they could have done with any other format. Their job narratives also add important information.

There are hundreds of categories that can be used in hybrid and functional resumes. Begin by trying to identify the categories that will work best for you. Some might be very specific to your field or industry. An art supplies sales representative might use three primary categories called “Sales Experience,” “Customer Service,” and “Art Supplies Background.” The first two are generic categories and the third is specific to the industry.

iS a FunCtional reSume For You?

Functional resumes do have drawbacks. While reviewing functional resumes, readers often wonder where the experience occurred since dates, job titles, and employers are not specified for each particular area of experience. Their eyes tend to dart up and down the page looking for the answers. They often become frustrated because the information in the resume is difficult to read and inter-pret—the applicant is making them work too hard. They may also suspect that something is being hidden.

Keeping these considerations in mind, some still wish to use a functional resume under the following circumstances: (1) when changing careers; (2) if changing industries, with related experience but no direct experience; (3) with substantial gaps in employment; (4) when the qualifications/chronological and hybrid formats just seem unsuitable for your background; (5) when your background can readily be illustrated in functional categories such as Management, Supervision, Coordinating, Troubleshooter, Motivator, or Training; or

(6) when you’ve had your current job for many years and you want to highlight different aspects of it through functions rather than one very long job narrative.

If you think a functional resume may be good for you, go ahead and write one. Test it out on friends or associates to determine if it truly sells you and is easy to read. If you get positive feedback, take it to the next level and start submitting it to employers.

Be sure to study the format of the qualifications/chronological resumes as another option. It has the advantages of the functional resume and the chronological resume, with none of their individual drawbacks.

Gary: Although the functional resume seems like a good idea to the resume writer, I have yet to find a resume reader who is a fan. In the course of 20 years’ anecdotal polling of individuals and groups, even those who have written them have maintained doubts of their effectiveness. The single most common issue raised when a functional resume is mentioned is “What are you trying to hide?” As soon as that specter is raised in the reader’s mind your cause is lost. There are better options, such as the qualifications/chronological resume, and the hybrid resume, both presented below, or the clustered resume® in the following chapter.

Tom: I agree with Gary that employers tend to dislike the functional resume. I rarely use it myself, but there are times that the background of the person simply does not work with other formats. Jason Ryerson’s resume on page 121 is an example. His traditional reverse chronological resume, with an overemphasis on military terminology was making it difficult for him to transition into a civilian career. The functional resume gave readers a sense of the brilliant project manager that he was.

writing Your FunCtional or hYbriD reSume

Once your job sketches have been completed, the first step in writing an effective functional or hybrid resume is to list the duties, experiences, projects, and successes that you want to include.

Just as you did with the job sketches, write these points quickly, without concern for grammar or spelling. Once you’re done, you’ll begin to see how some seem to naturally fit together. Select the category headings you will use; three to six is a good range. For your highly specialized or technical categories, you might have to come up with more definitive headings but that should not be difficult.

As we have seen, some of the more commonly used category headings include: Management, Supervision, Training, Planning, Designing, Research, Coordination, Negotiating, Public Relations, Administration, Marketing, Public Speaking, Organization, Counseling, Writing and Editing, Design, and Teaching.

Next, list the category headings with sufficient space in which to add your points. Initially you wrote those points quickly; now is the time to polish them. Once all the points have been placed in each category, determine the order in which they should be presented. Usually they are listed in order of importance to the position you are targeting. Take a long break.

Review what you’ve written and see if you can find ways to improve it. Prepare a second draft and take another break. With each fresh review, you should be able to find ways to make each point clearer and more concise. All of the previously described general instructions for resume writing apply to the functional or hybrid formats.

The following list may contain categories that will work well in your resume. This list is provided to give you ideas so you can produce nearly ideal category names.

FunCtional CategorieS

Accounting Cost Saving Human Resources Personnel Management
Accounts Payable Counseling Industrial Security Administration Safety
Administering Creative Writing Initial Public Personnel Safety/Accident
(Programs) Credit and Offerings Management Prevention
Administration Collections Internal Auditing Planning Safety/OSHA
Advertising Credit Inventory Control Policy Standards
Analysis and Management Management Development Safety Procedures
Preparation Crisis Intervention Information Presentations Sales
Auditing Curriculum Management Problem Solving Sales/Customer
Behavior Development Inspection Procedures Service
Modification Customer Service Interviewing Development Sales Personnel
Benefits Customer Training (Techniques) Product Design Training
Brochure Design Data Processing Investor Relations Product Scheduling
Budget Controls Database Invoice Processing Development Security
Budget Management Job Costing Production Security
Management Design Labor Negotiations Program Procedures
Business Law Display Design Labor Relations Coordination Shipping and
Buying Editing Leadership Program Receiving
Caseload Employee Learning Development Staff Development
Supervision Relations Disabilities Project Staff Evaluating
Client Relations Engineering Legal Engineering Statistical Analysis
Communications Engineering Manufacturing Project Strategic Planning
Community Proposals Management Coordination Supervision/
Relations Equipment Management Project Training
Community Acquisition Consulting Management System Design
Resource Equipment Management Production Systems Analysis
Utilization Repair And Information Planning Tax Analysis
Company Benefits Maintenance Systems Production Taxes
Programs Environmental Managing Management Technical Report
Computer Impact (Projects) Progress Reports Writing
Computer Statements Market Penetration Promoting Technical Writing
Programming Expediting (Strategies) Public Relations Technology
Computerized Facility Marketing Public Speaking Acquisition
Accounting Management Material Support Publishing Technology
Conflict Resolution Finance Media Relations Purchasing Transfer
Construction Financial Mediation Quality Control Telecommunica-
Consulting Management Merchandising Quality Assurance tions
Contract Bid Financial Mergers and Re-engineering Theft Control
Preparation and Statements Acquisitions Records Control Training
Administration Full-Charge Negotiations Recruitment Troubleshooting
Contract Bookkeeping Office Repair Procedures Turnover
Negotiations Fundraising Management Development Reduction
Cost Accounting Government Operations Research Vendor
Cost Controls Contracts Organizational Research And Negotiations
Cost Effectiveness Grant Proposal Development Design Vendor Relations
Cost Effectiveness Writing Organizational Research And Writing
Studies Group Therapy Theory Development
Cost Estimating Growth Planning Payroll Retail
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